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Pakistan Steel Products

 Spring Steels

Spring steel with very high yield strength allows objects made of it to return to their original shape despite significant bending or twisting because it’s a low-alloy made of nickel, medium-carbon steel or high-carbon steel. Music wire is the most widely used spring steel[ASTM A228 (0.80–0.95% carbon)]. Other grades of spring steel are AISI 1075, AISI 1095, AISI 5160 (we commonly produce), 301 Spring-tempered stainless steel (A666).

Spring steel is one of the most common materials used in the fabrication of lock picks due to its pliability and resilience, leaf springs, vehicle coil springs, piano wire, spring clamps, springs, s-tines and antennas. Due to its resistance to snapping or shattering it is also used in the manufacturing of metal swords used for stage combat.

Also because of its ability to absorb the shock Tubular spring steel is widely used by aircraft manufacturing companies in aircraft’s landing gear, as it also acts like damping.

 

Austentic Stainless Steel

It is an alloy containing chromium, nickel and sometimes molybdenum and nitrogen, structured around the Type 302 composition of iron, 18% chromium, and 8% nickel. Austenitic steels cannot be hardened by heat treatment.300 Series austenitic stainless steel has austenite as its primary phase (face centered cubic crystal). 200 Series austenitic stainless steels replace the majority of their nickel content with manganese to reduce cost. The most popular stainless steel is probably SAE 304 stainless steel, also called 18/8 or A2 stainless steel. Type 304 is an austenitic steel containing 18-20% chromium and 8-10% nickel used as surgical stainless steel.

 

Ferrite Stainless steels

Ferritic stainless steelsare less expensive alloys because they have reduced corrosion resistance due lesser chromium and nickel content but usually have better engineering properties than austenitic grades. They contain minor amount of nickel and between 10.5% -27% chromium but some types can contain lead. MISIL compositions include molybdenum; some, aluminium or titanium. Common ferritic grades include 18Cr-2Mo, 26Cr-1Mo, 29Cr-4Mo, and 29Cr-4Mo-2Ni. These alloys can be degraded by the presence of chromium, an intermetallic phase which can precipitate upon welding.

 

Alloys Steels

“Alloy steel” is the standard term referring to steels with other alloying elements in addition to the carbon.Every steel is truly an alloy, but not all steels are called alloy steels, to improve the mechanical properties that enhance its toughness, wear resistance, corrosion, resistance, hardness, hardenability,strength and hot hardness of steel it is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight. To achieve some of these improved properties the metal may require heat treating.Alloy steels are broken down into two groups: high-alloy steels and low-alloy steels, difference between the two alloys is somewhat arbitrary: Smith and Hashemi define the difference at 4.0%, while Degarmo, etal., define at 8%.

 

Common alloy-ants include manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, and boron. Less common alloy-ants include aluminum, cobalt, copper, cerium, niobium, titanium, tungsten, tin, zinc, lead, and zirconium. Alloy steel is used in exotic and highly-demanding applications, such as in the turbine blades of spacecraft, jet engines and in nuclear reactors. Because of the ferromagnetic properties of iron, some steel alloys find imperative applications where their reactions to magnetism are highly important, like in electric motors and in transformers.

 

                                                          DEFORMED STEEL BARS

Deformed Bars

      

With the features of high level purity, precise chemical composition control, high reduction ratio, high dimensional accuracy and excellent surface quality, the jewel of product mix, have pledged to serve nation building from infrastructural projects to housing needs, embarked high with national and international consulting engineers.

 

Bar being, under mandatory compliance with Pakistan Standards Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) must conform to PSI set standards along with other international standards such as

 

ASTM A 615 G-40             ASTM A 615 G-60             ASTM A 321        ASTM A 306
ASTM 706 A                        BS 4449:2005                      BS 4449:2009      PS 1879:2009 (R)               PS 231

 

Highly praiseworthy automation, DC driven technology, Siemens PLC control, continuous re-rolling yet provides a range of bars from 3/8 (9 mm) to 2 inch (50 mm). The capacity to re-roll as long as 1200 ft single bar sets customer requirement for any length of bar to help achieve loss of wastage at the site.

 

 

Re-enforcement Bars

With the features of high level purity, precise chemical composition control, high reduction ratio, high dimensional accuracy and excellent surface quality, the jewel of product mix, have pledged to serve nation building from infrastructural projects to housing needs, embarked high with national and international consulting engineers.

 

Bar being, under mandatory compliance with Pakistan Standards Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) must conform to PSI set standards along with other international standards such as

 

ASTM A 615 G-40             ASTM A 615 G-60             ASTM A 321        ASTM A 306        ASTM 706 A
BS 4449:2005                      BS 4449:2009                      PS 1879:2009 (R)                               PS 231

 

Highly praiseworthy automation, DC driven technology, Siemens PLC control, continuous re-rolling yet provides a range of bars from 3/8 (9 mm) to 2 inch (50 mm). The capacity to re-roll as long as 1200 ft single bar sets customer requirement for any length of bar to help achieve loss of wastage at the site.

 

Thermax Bars

With the features of high level purity, precise chemical composition control, high reduction ratio, high dimensional accuracy and excellent surface quality, the jewel of product mix, have pledged to serve nation building from infrastructural projects to housing needs, embarked high with national and international consulting engineers.

 

Bar being, under mandatory compliance with Pakistan Standards Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) must conform to PSI set standards along with other international standards such as

 

ASTM A 615 G-40             ASTM A 615 G-60             ASTM A 321        ASTM A 306        ASTM 706 A
BS 4449:2005                      BS 4449:2009                      PS 1879:2009 (R)               PS 231

 

Highly praiseworthy automation, DC driven technology, Siemens PLC control, continuous re-rolling yet provides a range of bars from 3/8 (9 mm) to 2 inch (50 mm). The capacity to re-roll as long as 1200 ft single bar sets customer requirement for any length of bar to help achieve loss of wastage at the site.

 

Grade & Specifications

ASTM A 615 G-40

ASTM A 615 G-60

Universal Beams (I-Beams)

Universal Beams (I-Section)

Structural T. Section

Structural T. Section

Unequal Angles (L.Section)

Unequal Angles (L.Section)

ASTM A 321

ASTM A 306

ASTM 706 A

BS 4449:2005

BS 4449:2009

PS 1879:2009 (R)

PS 231

 

 

9 Types of Rebar Commonly Used in Construction

 

 

 

Rebar: Reinforcing Steel Bar Specifications

Reinforcing bars are hot-rolled using different steel materials. Most rebars are rolled from new steel billets, but others are rolled from steel debris or railroad rails. Rebars are required to contain some sort of identification that can be used to identify the mill that produced the reinforcing steel bar. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has created a standard identification ruling that all rebars must comply with:

 

The number must identify the bar size.

The type of steel symbol must be noted. For example, "N" means the bar was rolled from a new billet, "W" stands for weldable steel, and "A" designates rolled axle steel. 

The rebar grade identification must be cited: This is either 60 or 75, or metric 420 or 520. The grade indicates the rebar yield strength.

A symbol identifying the manufacturer that rolled the bar must be included: This is usually a single letter or a plain symbol.

Lower-strength reinforcing steel bars have only three marks that identify the mill that produced the bar, the rebar size, and the type of steel used. High-strength reinforcing steel uses a continuous line system to show steel grade. If rebar contains two lines, it indicates that rebar was rolled into 75,000 psi bars. When a single line is present, it represents a 60,000-psi bar.

 

 

Types of Rebar 

 

Carbon Steel Rebars: 

 

This is the most common type of rebar and is sometimes referred to as a "black bar." It's extremely versatile but it corrodes more easily than other types, making it inappropriate in areas that are subject to high humidity or in structures that are frequently exposed to water. Many consider carbon steel rebar to be the best option in all other types of construction, however.

 

Welded Wire Fabric:

 

Welded wire fabric is made from a series of steel wires arranged at right angles and electrically welded at all steel wire crossings. Welded wire fabric is also known as WWF. It can be used in slab-on-ground slabs where the ground has been well compacted. A heavier fabrication of welded wire fabric can be used in walls and structural floor slabs. This is commonly used in road pavement, box culverts, drainage structures, and in small concrete canals.

 

 

Sheet-Metal Reinforcing Bars:

 

Sheet-metal reinforcement is commonly used in floor slabs, stairs, and roof construction. Sheet-metal reinforcing is composed of annealed sheet steel pieces bent into corrugations of about 1/16 of an inch deep with holes punched at regular spacing.

 

Epoxy-Coated Rebar

 

Epoxy-coated rebars are expensive and used in areas that will be in contact with salt water or where a corrosion problem is imminent. The only problem is that the coating can be very delicate so bars should be ordered from a reputable supplier.

 

European Rebars

 

These rebars are typically made of manganese so they tend to bend more easily. They're not suitable for use in areas that are prone to extreme weather conditions or geological effects, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or tornadoes. They can be cost effective. 

 

Stainless Steel Rebars

 

Stainless steel can be used as an alternative reinforcing steel bar with carbon steel reinforcement. Using stainless steel reinforcing bars will not create galvanic corrosion, and it can be a cost-effective solution in areas subject to corrosion problems or where repair is difficult and expensive. These rebars will cost at least eight times more than epoxy-coated rebars, however.

 

Galvanized Rebars

 

Galvanized rebars are 40 times more resistant to corrosion than carbon steer rebars, making them ideal for structures that will be heavily exposed to wet and humid conditions. They're pricey, however.

 

 

 Expanded Metal or Wire Mesh Rebars

 

Expanded metal or wire mesh reinforcement is another good product for concrete. Expanded metal is made by shearing a sheet of steel into parallel lines which are then expanded to form a diamond shape or a square shape between each cut. Expanded metal is commonly used as reinforcement in areas where a considerable thickness of plaster is required, or to reinforce light concrete construction. Wire mesh reinforcement can be used on sidewalks, small concrete pads, or walkable surfaces that don't receive high live or load charges.

 

Glass-Fiber-Reinforced-Polymer Rebars

 

Similar to carbon fiber, GFRP rebars will not corrode—ever, under any conditions. You'll pay dearly for that, however. These rebars can run 10 times the cost of epoxy-coated rebars. 

 

 

 

          

                            Mechanical Properties

Product Specifications:

·  Yield strength: 500 MPA (min) [72,500 psi]

·  Ultimate Tensile Strength: 575 MPA (min) [83,375 psi]

·  Elongation [%]: 14% (min)

·  Amreli Xtreme Bars (ends cut) manufactured to BS 4449-2005

Other Information:

·  Managed and owned by 3rd generation steel entrepreneurs; trusted since 1972.

·  Computerized weighbridges in the factory and warehouse to ensure accurate weight.

·  All bars are cut to standard sizes, 12-16 meters. Fixed 12cm can also be delivered as per customer requirements.

    [Cold Rolled Coil (CRC)

 

 

Currently Cold Rolled Coil (CRC) Mill has an annual production capacity of 220000MT with state-of-the-art production facility using Japanese and Austrian machinery for all its main process ensuring best quality production meeting international standards and customers’ requirements. CRC products offered to the industrial, engineering and manufacturing industry as a premium raw material for transformation into any number of value-added products for the domestic and export markets.

Product:

ASML produces Cold Rolled Coils (CRC) of international standards from imported Hot Rolled Coils (HRC).

Cold Rolled Product of ASML is currently available in thickness of 0.15 to 2.5mm in widths of 914, 1000, 1120, 1220mm in Matt & Bright finish as per customer requirement.

 

COIL MAKING PROCESS

HRC is imported as raw material for conversion into the final product, CRC. Before processing into cold rolled steel, it is necessary to pickle the steel to eliminate the black oxide scale on the surface, subsequent to which, the Hot Rolled flat steel is cold rolled to the required final thickness at room temperature. In cold rolling, the hot rolled coil is rolled into thinner gauges of the required size through further passage in rolling stands. Cold rolled steel possesses a better surface, enhanced strength, and better dimensional characteristics than hot rolled steel. The product passes through an electrolytic cleaning line for removal of oil, iron powder and other foreign materials. The steel is then annealed, which involves slow heating and cooling to improve work ability.

Skin Passing is done to improve and normalize the mechanical properties and to get the specified surface finish, hardness and flatness; after which the finished product is passed through a recoiling line to adjust the width by edge trimming, coil weight by dividing a large coil into small coils to meet the requirement, inspect dimensions, surface quality, flatness, and remove defective parts and to apply rust-preventive oil.

                               COIL MAKING PROCESS

          

 

                       

 

Quality Control & Assurance:

Tensile Test     Cupping Test   Hardness Test     Bend Test    Surface Finish       Flatness

Consumers: Home Appliances and Components, Electrical Appliances, Automobiles, Furniture, Kitchen Uses: Drums, Construction, Other including Wall and Ceiling Mount Kits, Bearings, Hardened Washers and Brushes, Telecom Towers, Shelters, Filters, Pipes, etc. etc.